Electricity throughout the Universe

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===Atmospheric electricity===
===Atmospheric electricity===
 +
[[File:Lightning-sprites-elves-jets.jpg|thumb|320px|Lightning, blue jets, sprites and elves, examples of "Transient Luminous Events" in the atmosphere]]
:See also: [[Atmospheric electricity]]
:See also: [[Atmospheric electricity]]
*[[Lightning]] is probably the most common and well-accepted form of terrestrial electricity
*[[Lightning]] is probably the most common and well-accepted form of terrestrial electricity

Revision as of 15:01, 22 August 2009

Electricity in the Universe has been identified from beneath our feet, in animals and plants, our biosphere, and out to the furthest reaches of the Universe. In general, electricity is present wherever we find plasma, and since 99.999% of the visible universe is in the plasma state, electromagnetic forces

Contents

Terrestrial electricity

Telluric currents (Subterranean electricity)

See also: Telluric current on Wikipedia
  • Underground currents up to a million amps have been discovered in Australia.[1]
  • Telluric currents have been discovered in Arizon in the San Francisco Peaks volcanic field.[2]
  • Earth's core: "Electric currents of about a billion amps flow across the boundary between the solid inner core and the fluid outer core that lies around it."[3]

Atmospheric electricity

Lightning, blue jets, sprites and elves, examples of "Transient Luminous Events" in the atmosphere
See also: Atmospheric electricity

Ionopshere

  • Birkeland currents are electric currents that power the aurora (on Earth and other planets),[4] and carry about a million amps.[5]

Biological electricity

  • Electric fields may shape tissue.[6]
  • Electric fish
  • The Duck-billed platypus bill detects weak electric fields generated from the minute electrical signals passing between nerves and muscles in the tail of prey such as shrimp.[7]
  • Neurons fire electrochemical signals.[8]
  • Rattlesnakes generate 75-100 volts when shaken! The electrostatics may be used to sense their environment.[9]

Extraterrestrial (cosmic) electricity

Near-Earth electricity

  • Neutral sheet and near-earth magnetotail flux ropes whose "field-aligned current within these ropes may approach a million amps".[10]

Solar electricity

Interplanetary electricity

  • Heliospheric current sheet carries about 3×109 amperes, [16] with a current density of around 10-10 amps/m2 (space is big!)
  • Interplanetary electric field has the same extent is the same as the heliospheric current sheet, but the current run north-south.[17] [18]
  • Flux ropes (Birkeland currents) between the Sun and Earth were discovered by the THEMIS spacecraft, carrying 650,000 Amps to the Artic aurora.[19] [20]

Galactic electricity

  • Astrophysical jets carry electric currents.[21] [22]

Intergalactic electricity

  • Galactic current sheet: the analog of the "Heliospheric current sheet" is estimated to carry 1017 - 1019 Amps.[23]
  • Extragalactic jets (the analog of galactic astrophysical jets) carry electric currents.[24]

Comets

  • Comet nuclei charge electrostatically.[25]
  • Comet dust charges electrostatically causing it to levitate from the comet surface.[26]
  • Cometary current system: plasma tail streamers separated by a neutral current sheet, has a total current exceeding 108A.[27]
  • Cometary plasma tails, generate magnetic fields and electric currents of up to a billion Amp.[28]
  • Cometary atmosphere feature electric currents.[29]
  • Cometary aurora due to "current discharges into the atmosphere from the tail.[30]

Venus' tail (flux ropes)

  • Venus current system: Pioneer Venus Orbiter identified an induced electric field in the tail, and magnetic field reversals indicative of electric currents.[31] [32]

Meteoroids

  • Meteoroids: "... in space are electrically charged due to cosmic rays, solar UV, and other effects (solar wind and ions and electron impacts)"[33]

Lunar dust charging

  • Moon dust: charges due to photoelectric effect,[34] [35] interaction with the local plasma environment, [36] and contact charging.[37] that results in levitation of the lunar dust,[38] up to altitudes of up to 100km.[39]

Io-Jupiter flux tube

  • Io-Jupiter flux tube: as Io crosses through Jupiter's atmosphere, an electric current is generated estimated at 10 million amps.[40]

Refererences

  1. "Huge Underground Electrical Circuit", Science Frontiers, No. 54: Nov-Dec 1987. Citing: "Scientists Discover Huge Underground Circuit," Monash Review, p. 10, December 1986, Cr. R.E. Molnar
  2. "Subterranean Electric Currents", Science Frontiers, No. 36: Nov-Dec 1984. Citing: Towle, James N.; "The Anomalous Geomagnetic Variation Field and Geoelectric Structure Associated with the Mesa Butte Fault System, Arizona," Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 95:221, February 1984
  3. "The motor of the world", Science Frontiers, No. 108: Nov-Dec 1996. Citing: Stokstad, Erik; "Earth's Heart Is in a Spin," New Scientist, p. 18, July 20, 1996. The basic paper is: Song, Xiadong, and Richards, Paul G.; "Seismological Evidence for Differential Rotation of the Earth"s Inner Core", Nature, 382:221, 1996
  4. "Birkeland current" on Wikipedia
  5. G. A. Germany, P. G. Richards G. K. Parks, M. Brittnacher, and J. F. Spann, "Global auroral imaging as a remote diagnostic of geospace" presented at AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, June 25, 1997
  6. "The Currents Of Life", Science Frontiers, No. 12: Fall 1980. Citing: "Electric Charges May Shape Living Tissue," New Scientist, 86:245, 1980
  7. "Platypus Bill An Electrical Probe", Science Frontiers, No. 45: May-Jun 1986. Cited in "The Battery-Operated Duck-Billed Platypus," New Scientist, p. 25, February 13, 1986
  8. Neuron at Wikipedia
  9. Electric Snakes, Science Frontiers, No. 96: Nov-Dec 1994. Citing: Vonstille, W.T., and Stille, W.T., III; "Electrostatic Sense in Rattlesnakes", Nature, 370:184, 1994
  10. Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Cattell, C. A.; Takahasi, K.; Bame, S. J., "ISEE-1 and 2 observations of magnetic flux ropes in the magnetotail - FTE's in the plasma sheet?" Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276), vol. 13, July 1986, p. 648-651.
  11. Hannes Alfvén, per Carlqvist "Currents in the Solar Atmosphere and a Theory of Solar Flares" (1967) Solar Physics, Vol. 1, p.220
  12. Carlqvist, P., "Current Limitation and Solar Flares" (1969) Solar Physics, Vol. 7, p.377
  13. Karlicky, M., "Evolution of force-free electric currents in the solar atmosphere" (1997) Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.318, p.289-292
  14. Zaitsev, V. V.; Stepanov, A. V., "Towards the circuit theory of solar flares" (1992) Solar Physics (ISSN 0038-0938), vol. 139, no. 2, June 1992, p. 343-356
  15. Strauss, H. R.; Otani, N. F., "Current sheets in the solar corona" Template:Full (1988) Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 326, March 1, 1988, p. 418-424
  16. sraelevich, P. L., et al, "MHD simulation of the three-dimensional structure of the heliospheric current sheet" (2001) Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.376, p.288-291
  17. Duncan Alan Bryant, Electron Acceleration in the Aurora and Beyond, Published 1999, CRC Press, 311 pages, ISBN 0750305339 (page 176)
  18. Gerd W. Prölss, Physics of the Earth's Space Environment: An Introduction, (2004) Translated by M. K. Bird, Springer, 514 pages, ISBN 3540214267 (pages 312-313)
  19. "NASA Spacecraft Make New Discoveries About Northern Lights"
  20. "Multimedia for the Press Event for THEMIS" See Image 10: "Flux Ropes Power the Magnetosphere!: THEMIS discovered a flux rope pumping a 650,000 Amp current into the Arctic. "
  21. Appl, S.; Camenzind, M. "The stability of current-carrying jets" (1992) Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361), vol. 256, no. 2, p. 354-370
  22. Baty, H. "On the magnetohydrodynamic stability of current-carrying jets" (2005) Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.430, p.9-17
  23. Hannes Alfvén and Per Carlqvist, "Interstellar clouds and the formation of stars]" (1978) in Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 55, no. 2, May 1978, p. 487-509
  24. Jafelice, Luiz C.; Opher, Reuven; Assis, Altair S.; Busnardo-Neto, Jose, "Current generation in extragalactic jets by Cherenkov damping of magnetohydrodynamic waves" (1990) Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 348, Jan. 1, 1990, p. 61-72
  25. Mendis, D. A.; Hill, J. R.; Houpis, H. L. F.; Whipple, E. C, "On the electrostatic charging of the cometary nucleus" (1981) Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 249, Oct. 15, 1981, p. 787-797.
  26. Mendis, D. A.; Rosenberg, M., "Cosmic Dusty Plasmas" (1994) Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 32, 1994, pp. 419-463
  27. Mendis, D. A., "On the hydromagnetic model of comets]" (1978) Moon and the Planets, vol. 18, May 1978, p. 361-369
  28. Ip, W.-H.; Mendis, D. A., "The generation of magnetic fields and electric currents in cometary plasma tails" (1976) Icarus, vol. 29, Sept. 1976, p. 147-151
  29. Ip, W.-H., "Currents in the cometary atmosphere" (1979) Planetary and Space Science, vol. 27, Feb. 1979, p. 121-125
  30. Houpis, H. L. F.; Mendis, D. A., "On the development and global oscillations of cometary ionospheres" (1981) Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 243, Feb. 1, 1981, p. 1088-1102.
  31. Intriligator, D. S.; Scarf, F. L., "Wave-particle interactions in the Venus wake and tail" (1984), Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227), vol. 89, Jan. 1, 1984, p. 47-55
  32. Alfven, H., Cosmic plasma (1981) Astrophysics and Space Science Library. Volume 82), 1981. "III.5.3. "Current Systems in the Magnetosphere of Venus" Page 62
  33. Edmond Murad, Iwan P. Williams, "Meteors in the Earth's Atmosphere: Meteoroids and Cosmic Dust and their Interactions with the Earth's Upper Atmosphere" (2002) Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521804310 (p.257)
  34. de, Bibhas R.; Criswell, David R., "Intense localized photoelectric charging in the lunar sunset terminator region 1. Development of potentials and fields" Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 82, Issue A7, March 1, 1977, pp.999-1004
  35. Pelizzari, M. A.; Criswell, D. R., "Lunar dust transport by photoelectric charging at sunset", In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 9th, Houston, Tex., March 13-17, 1978, Proceedings. Volume 3. (A79-39253 16-91) New York, Pergamon Press, Inc., 1978, p. 3225-3237.
  36. Timothy J. Stubbs, "A dynamic fountain model for lunar dust", Advances in Space Research, Volume 37, Issue 1, 2006, Pages 59-66
  37. Sternovsky, Z., S. Robertson, A. Sickafoose, J. Colwell, and M. Horányi (2002), "Contact charging of lunar and Martian dust simulants, J. Geophys. Res., 107(E11), 5105
  38. S. Doe, J. O. Burns, D. Pettit, J. Blacic, and P. W. Keaton, "The Levitation of Lunar Dust Via Electrostatic Forces", in Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space IV, pp. 907-915
  39. Stubbs, Timothy J.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Farrell, William M., "A dynamic fountain model for lunar dust", Advances in Space Research, Volume 37, Issue 1, p. 59-66 (PDF)
  40. Saur, Joachim; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Zarka, Philippe; Kivelson, Margaret G., "Plasma interaction of Io with its plasma torus", In: Jupiter. The planet, satellites and magnetosphere. Edited by Fran Bagenal, Timothy E. Dowling, William B. McKinnon. Cambridge planetary science, Vol. 1, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-81808-7, 2004, p. 537 - 560. (PDF)
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